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Calcium chloride dihydrate 氯化钙二水合物
{{'Company'|translate}}: Sigma-Aldrich
{{'Catalog#'|translate}}: 223506
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Dual-sided Voltage-sensitive Dye Imaging of Leech Ganglia
[Abstract]  In this protocol, we introduce an effective method for voltage-sensitive dye (VSD) loading and imaging of leech ganglia as used in Tomina and Wagenaar (2017). Dissection and dye loading procedures are the most critical steps toward successful whole-ganglion VSD imaging. The former entails the removal of the sheath that covers neurons in the segmental ganglion of the leech, which is required for successful dye loading. The latter entails gently flowing a new generation VSD, VF2.1(OMe).H, onto both sides of the ganglion simultaneously using a pair of peristaltic pumps. We expect the described techniques to translate broadly to wide-field VSD imaging in other thin and relatively transparent nervous systems.

Quantifying the Capacity of Phloem Loading in Leaf Disks with [14C]Sucrose
[Abstract]  Phloem loading and transport of photoassimilate from photoautotrophic source leaves to heterotrophic sink organs are essential physiological processes that help the disparate organs of a plant function as a single, unified organism. We present three protocols we routinely use in combination with each other to assess (1) the relative rates of sucrose (Suc) loading into the phloem vascular system of mature leaves (this protocol), (2) the relative rates of carbon loading and transport through the phloem (Yadav et al., 2017a), and (3) the relative rates of carbon unloading into heterotrophic sink organs, specifically roots, after long-distance transport (Yadav et al., 2017b). We propose that conducting all three protocols on experimental and control plants provides a ...

Rice Root Organic Acid Efflux Measurement by Using Ion Chromatography
[Abstract]  Organic acids secreted from plant roots play important roles in various biological processes including nutrient acquisition, metal detoxification, and pathogen attraction. The secretion of organic acids may be affected by various conditions such as plant growth stage, nutrient deficiency, and abiotic stress. For example, when white lupin (Lupinus albus L.) is exposed to phosphorus (P)-deficient conditions, the secretion of citrate acid from its proteoid roots significantly increases (Neumann et al., 1999). This protocol describes a method for the collection and measurement of the efflux of organic acids (oxalate, malate, and citrate) from the roots of rice cultivar Nipponbare (‘Nip’) under different nitrogen forms (NH4+ and NO3-), ...