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Bovine Serum Albumin

牛血清白蛋白

Company: Sigma-Aldrich
Catalog#: A7030
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Separation of Thylakoid Protein Complexes with Two-dimensional Native-PAGE
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Date:
2018-07-05
[Abstract]  The hierarchical composition and interactions of the labile thylakoid protein complexes can be assessed by sequential 2D-native gel-electrophoresis system. Mild non-ionic detergent digitonin is used to solubilize labile protein super-and megacomplexes, which are then separated with first-dimension blue native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (1D-BN-PAGE). The digitonin derived protein complexes are further solubilized with stronger detergent, β-DM, and subsequently separated on an orthogonal 2D-BN-PAGE to release smaller protein subcomplexes from the higher-order supercomplexes. Here we describe a detailed method for 2D-BN-PAGE analysis of thylakoid protein complexes from Arabidopsis thaliana. [摘要]  不稳定的类囊体蛋白复合物的分级组成和相互作用可以通过连续的2D天然凝胶电泳系统来评估。 温和的非离子洗涤剂洋地黄皂苷用于溶解不稳定的蛋白质超级和巨型复合物,然后用第一维蓝色天然聚丙烯酰胺凝胶电泳(1D-BN-PAGE)分离。 将洋地黄皂苷衍生的蛋白质复合物用更强的去污剂β-DM进一步溶解,随后在正交的2D-BN-PAGE上分离,以从较高级的超复合物中释放较小的蛋白质亚复合物。 在这里,我们描述了来自拟南芥的类囊体蛋白复合物的2D-BN-PAGE分析的详细方法。

【背景】在类囊体膜中发生光合作用的光反应,在高等植物中,由贴壁的grana类囊体和非贴壁的基质类囊体组成。光反应由多亚基蛋白复合物光系统(PS)I和II,细胞色素b 6 f和ATP酶催化。 PSII及其光捕获天线复合物(LHCII)在grana-thylakoids中最为丰富,因此在空间上与基质类囊体定位的PSI-LHCI复合物隔离(Andersson和Anderson,1980)。格拉纳和基质类囊体之间的间期在两个光系统中都得到了丰富(Albertsson,2001; Suorsa et al。,2015)。通过光依赖性LHCII和PSII蛋白的可逆磷酸化介导,光系统与LHCII一起组装成更大的超级和超级复合物。 ...

Preparation of Cerebellum Granule Neurons from Mouse or Rat Pups and Evaluation of Clostridial Neurotoxin Activity and Their Inhibitors by Western Blot and Immunohistochemistry
Author:
Date:
2018-07-05
[Abstract]  Cerebellar Granule Neurons (CGN) from post-natal rodents have been widely used as a model to study neuronal development, physiology and pathology. CGN cultured in vitro maintain the same features displayed in vivo by mature cerebellar granule cells, including the development of a dense neuritic network, neuronal activity, neurotransmitter release and the expression of neuronal protein markers. Moreover, CGN represent a convenient model for the study of Clostridial Neurotoxins (CNT), most notably known as Tetanus and Botulinum neurotoxins, as they abundantly express both CNT receptors and intraneuronal substrates, i.e., Soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor activating protein receptors (SNARE proteins). Here, we describe a protocol for obtaining a highly pure ... [摘要]  来自产后啮齿动物的小脑颗粒神经元(CGN)已被广泛用作研究神经元发育,生理学和病理学的模型。 CGN体外培养维持成熟小脑颗粒细胞在体内显示的相同特征,包括发育致密的神经炎网络,神经元活动,神经递质释放和神经元的表达 蛋白质标记。 此外,CGN代表了梭菌神经毒素(CNT)研究的便利模型,最着名的是破伤风和肉毒杆菌神经毒素,因为它们大量表达CNT受体和神经元内基质, ie ,可溶性N-乙基马来酰亚胺 - 敏感因子激活蛋白受体(SNARE蛋白)。 在这里,我们描述了从出生后大鼠/小鼠获得高纯度CGN培养物的方案和用CNT中毒的简便方法。 我们还说明了评估CNT活性及其抑制的方便方法。

【背景】梭菌神经毒素(CNT)的大家族由破伤风神经毒素(TeNT)和肉毒杆菌神经毒素(BoNT)的多种变体形成,它们分别是破伤风和肉毒中毒的神经麻痹毒素(Schiavo et al。,2000; Johnson和Montecucco,2008; Rossetto et al。,2014)。 TeNT,七种BoNT血清型(BoNT / A至/ G)及其许多亚型是金属蛋白酶,通过切割SNARE蛋白(可溶性N-乙基马来酰亚胺敏感因子激活蛋白受体),三种必需蛋白质来阻断神经递质的释放而引起神经麻痹。控制突触小泡与突触前质膜的融合(Rossetto et al。,2014; ...

Ex vivo Analysis of Lipolysis in Human Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue Explants
Author:
Date:
2018-02-05
[Abstract]  Most studies of human adipose tissue (AT) metabolism and functionality have been performed in vitro on isolated mature adipocyte or in situ using the microdialysis technique (Lafontan, 2012). However, these approaches have several limitations. The use of mature isolated adipocytes is limiting as adipocytes are not in their physiological environment and the collagenase digestion process could affect both adipocyte survival and functionality. While metabolic studies using microdialysis have brought the advantage of studying the lipolytic response of the adipose tissue in situ, it provides only qualitative measures but does not give any information on the contribution of different adipose tissue cell components. Moreover, the number of microdialysis probes that can ... [摘要]  人脂肪组织(AT)代谢的上havebeen执行的大多数研究和功能的体外上分离的脂肪细胞成熟或原位使用微透析技术(Lafontan,2012)。但是,这些方法有几个限制。成熟的分离的脂肪细胞的使用是有限的,因为脂肪细胞不在其生理环境中,胶原酶消化过程可能影响脂肪细胞的存活和功能。虽然微透析代谢研究带来了学习原位脂肪组织中的的脂肪分解反应的优点的它仅提供定性的措施,但并没有给出不同的脂肪组织细胞成分的贡献的任何信息。此外,可以在受试者中同时使用的微透析探针的数量是有限的,并且可以受到局部血流量变化和微透析样品的分子大小截断的影响。在这里,我们提出了一个协议,以评估对脂肪组织的功能的体外在AT植允许脂肪组织的研究中其整个范围内,几个小时。此外,可以评估脂肪分解的细胞特异性影响。直接在脂肪组织基质血管室。在脂肪组织中(Gao等人,2016)。

【背景】人类白色脂肪组织(WAT)在体内能量平衡中起主要作用。脂肪细胞是表达特异性脂质处理代谢活动的特化细胞,构成超过90%的WAT体积(Lafontan,2012)。除了脂肪细胞,其他细胞类型是人类WAT中存在的例如,血管细胞,免疫细胞(淋巴细胞和巨噬细胞)和祖细胞在WAT重构和更新参与。脂肪细胞的代谢活动受到局部和全身途径整合的严格控制。在合成代谢或分解代谢条件影响调制的净脂肪细胞的代谢活性神经体液信号, I.E. ...

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