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pGEM®-T Easy Vector Systems pGEM ® -T Easy Vector System I
{{'Company'|translate}}: Promega
{{'Catalog#'|translate}}: A1360
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Generation of Mutant Pigs by Direct Pronuclear Microinjection of CRISPR/Cas9 Plasmid Vectors
[Abstract]  A set of Cas9 and single guide CRISPR RNA expression vectors was constructed. Only a very simple procedure was needed to prepare specific single-guide RNA expression vectors with high target accuracy. Since the de novo zygotic transcription had been detected in mouse embryo at the 1-cell stage, the plasmid DNA vectors encoding Cas9 and GGTA1 gene specific single-guide RNAs were micro-injected into zygotic pronuclei to confirm such phenomenon in 1-cell pig embryo. Our results demonstrated that mutations caused by these CRISPR/Cas9 plasmids occurred before and at the 2-cell stage of pig embryos, indicating that besides the cytoplasmic microinjection of in vitro transcribed RNA, the pronuclear microinjection of CRISPR/Cas9 DNA vectors provided an efficient solution to ...

Measurement of RNA-induced PKR Activation in vitro
[Abstract]  Protein kinase R (PKR) is one of the key RNA-activated sensors for innate immunity. PKR is activated by pathogenic or aberrant RNAs such as short double-stranded RNAs or those with imperfect secondary structures, as well as a reduction in the amount and number of RNA modifications. Activation of PKR may be an underlying mechanism for the pathogenesis of human diseases. In this protocol, I describe a method for studying levels of RNA-induced PKR activation in vitro.

Cell-based Assays to Monitor AID Activity
[Abstract]  The enzyme Activation induced deaminase (AID) underpins antibody affinity maturation and isotype switching through its mutagenic activity of deaminating deoxycytidine to deoxyuridine in DNA. Subsequent processing of the deoxyuridine initiates the processes of somatic hypermutation (SHM) and class switch recombination (CSR) in B cells. Structure-function analysis of AID requires sensitive and biologically relevant methods to measure its various activities. Here we describe simple but effective methods to measure 1) the ability of AID to mutate the Escherichia coli genome, which provides an indication of its catalytic activity; 2) the capacity of AID to perform SHM by complementing a derivative of the DT40 chicken B cell line; 3) the ability of AID to perform CSR by complementing ...