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Magnesium Sulfate Heptahydrate

Magnesium Sulfate Heptahydrate

Company: Wako Pure Chemical Industries
Catalog#: 131-00405
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Measuring Spatiotemporal Dynamics of Odor Gradient for Small Animals by Gas Chromatography
Author:
Date:
2018-04-05
[Abstract]  Odor is the most fundamental chemical stimulus that delivers information regarding food, mating partners, enemies, and danger in the surrounding environment. Research on odor response in animals is widespread, although studies on experimental systems in which the gradient of odor concentration is quantitatively measured has been quite limited. Here, we describe a method for measuring a gradient of odor concentration established by volatilization and diffusion in a relatively small enclosed space, which has been used widely in laboratories to analyze small model animals such as the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans and the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. We first vaporized known amounts of a liquid odorant 2-nonanone in a tank and subjected them to gas chromatographic ... [摘要]  气味是提供关于食物,交配伙伴,敌人和周围环境危险的信息的最基本的化学刺激物。关于动物气味反应的研究很普遍,尽管对定量测量气味浓度梯度的实验系统的研究非常有限。在这里,我们描述了一种测量由相对较小的封闭空间中的挥发和扩散建立的气味浓度梯度的方法,其已经在实验室中被广泛用于分析线虫等线虫和果蝇<果蝇黑腹果蝇。我们首先将已知量的液体加味剂2-壬​​酮蒸发到罐中并进行气相色谱分析以获得校准曲线。然后,我们从琼脂平板上的小孔中吸取少量气相并测量臭味浓度。通过在不同的空间和时间点重复这一点,我们能够检测随时间增加的气味浓度梯度。此外,通过将这些测量值应用于挥发和扩散的数学模型,我们能够可视化在琼脂平板上的气味浓度的估计动态变化。将琼脂平板中的气味浓度变化监测与通过机器视觉进行的行为监测相结合,将使我们能够估计大脑如何计算有关气味浓度变化的信息以调节行为。

【背景】气味是表达食物,生殖伙伴,敌人等在周围环境中存在的最基本的化学刺激物。小型模型动物,如线虫<秀秀隐杆线虫>和果蝇 适合理解大脑对行为,神经活动和分子水平的气味刺激的反应,因为:(1)利用便宜的高分辨率相机可以容易地记录对气味刺激的行为反应; (2)可以用钙成像测量多个神经元/神经元组中的反应,并且(3)负责行为和神经反应的基因可以用各种遗传方法鉴定(De Bono和Maricq,2005; ...

Boron Uptake Assay in Xenopus laevis Oocytes
Author:
Date:
2018-03-05
[Abstract]  Boron (B) is essential for plant growth and taken up by plant roots as boric acid. Under B limitation, B uptake and translocation in plants are dependent on the boric acid channels located in the plasma membrane. Xenopus leavis oocyte is a reliable heterologous expression system to characterize transport activities of boric acid channels and related major intrinsic proteins (aquaporins). Here, we outline the protocols for expression of boric acid channels and boric acid uptake assay in Xenopus leavis oocytes. [摘要]  硼(B)对植物生长至关重要,并被植物根部吸收为硼酸。 在B限制下,植物中的B吸收和转运依赖于位于质膜中的硼酸通道。 非洲爪蟾卵母细胞是一种可靠的异源表达系统,用于表征硼酸通道和相关主要内在蛋白(水通道蛋白)的运输活性。 在这里,我们概述了在非洲爪蟾卵母细胞中表达硼酸通道和硼酸摄取测定的方案。

【背景】硼对植物生长是必不可少的,但是它在积累时是有毒的。硼通过鼠李糖聚半乳糖醛酸II区果胶多糖的交联在细胞壁中具有结构功能(Funakawa和Miwa,2015)。在溶液中,B主要以生理pH下的硼酸形式存在[B(OH)3 H 2 O 2 B(OH)4] + - (p k a = 9.24)]。硼酸是一种小的中性分子,因此在生物膜上显示出显着的被动扩散(Dordas等人,2000)。此外,植物利用属于主要内在蛋白质(MIP,水通道蛋白)家族的硼酸通道和硼酸盐出口者(BOR家族)来维持B体内平衡(Takano等人,2008)。

最初,玉米PIP1在非洲爪蟾卵母细胞中表达并且显示出促进硼酸摄入比注水卵母细胞高30%(Dordas et al。 2000>)。然后,显示拟南芥NIP5; 1促进硼酸摄取比注水卵母细胞高5至9倍(Takano等人,2006)。与发现缺乏NIP5; ...

Incubation of Cyanobacteria under Dark, Anaerobic Conditions and Quantification of the Excreted Organic Acids by HPLC
Author:
Date:
2017-05-05
[Abstract]  Succinate and lactate are commodity chemicals used for producing bioplastics. Recently, it was found that such organic acids are excreted from cells of the unicellular cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 under dark, anaerobic conditions. To conduct the dark, anaerobic incubation, cells were concentrated within a vial that was then sealed with a butyl rubber cap, following which N2 gas was introduced into the vial. The organic acids produced were quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography via post-labeling with bromothymol blue as a pH indicator. After separation by ion-exclusion chromatography, the organic acids were identified by comparing their retention time with that of standard solutions. These procedures allow researchers to quantify the organic ... [摘要]  琥珀酸盐和乳酸盐是用于生产生物塑料的商品化学品。最近发现这样的有机酸从单细胞蓝细菌集胞藻的细胞中排出。 PCC 6803在黑暗,无氧条件下。为了进行黑暗的厌氧培养,将细胞浓缩在小瓶内,然后用丁基橡胶帽密封,随后将N 2气体引入小瓶中。通过用溴百里酚蓝作为pH指示剂的后标记,通过高效液相色谱定量产生的有机酸。通过离子排阻色谱分离后,通过将其保留时间与标准溶液的保留时间进行比较来鉴定有机酸。这些程序允许研究人员量化微生物产生的有机酸,有助于蓝藻生物学和生物技术的知识。

背景 蓝细菌是一组进行氧合光合作用的细菌。集胞藻 sp。 PCC 6803(以下称为集胞藻6803)是非固氮,单细胞蓝细菌,通常用于基础和应用研究。集胞藻6803细胞能够在黑暗和厌氧条件下分泌有机酸,如琥珀酸盐和乳酸盐(Osanai等,2015)。培养条件的遗传操作和修饰,例如添加钾或NaHCO 3,成功地提高了从集胞藻6803细胞排出的有机酸的水平(Osanai >等人,2015; Hasunuma等人,2016; Iijima等人,2016; Ueda等人。 ...

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