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VWR SignatureTM Ergonomic High Performance Single-Channel Variable Volume Pipettors, 20-200 μl VWR SignatureTM Ergonomic High Performance Single-Channel Variable Volume Pipettors
{{'Company'|translate}}: VWR
{{'Catalog#'|translate}}: 89079-970
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Dual-sided Voltage-sensitive Dye Imaging of Leech Ganglia
[Abstract]  In this protocol, we introduce an effective method for voltage-sensitive dye (VSD) loading and imaging of leech ganglia as used in Tomina and Wagenaar (2017). Dissection and dye loading procedures are the most critical steps toward successful whole-ganglion VSD imaging. The former entails the removal of the sheath that covers neurons in the segmental ganglion of the leech, which is required for successful dye loading. The latter entails gently flowing a new generation VSD, VF2.1(OMe).H, onto both sides of the ganglion simultaneously using a pair of peristaltic pumps. We expect the described techniques to translate broadly to wide-field VSD imaging in other thin and relatively transparent nervous systems.

Rapid Isolation of Total Protein from Arabidopsis Pollen
[Abstract]  Arabidopsis pollen is an excellent system for answering important biological questions about the establishment and maintenance of cellular polarity and polar cell growth, because these processes are amenable to the genetic and genomic approaches that are readily available in Arabidopsis. Given that proteins are the direct executors of a wide variety of cellular processes, it is important to rapidly and efficiently isolate total protein for various protein-based analyses, such as Western blotting, co-immunoprecipitation and mass spectrometry, among others. Here we present a protocol for rapid isolation of total protein from Arabidopsis pollen, which is adapted from our recently published paper (Chang and Huang, 2015).

Measurement of RNA-induced PKR Activation in vitro
[Abstract]  Protein kinase R (PKR) is one of the key RNA-activated sensors for innate immunity. PKR is activated by pathogenic or aberrant RNAs such as short double-stranded RNAs or those with imperfect secondary structures, as well as a reduction in the amount and number of RNA modifications. Activation of PKR may be an underlying mechanism for the pathogenesis of human diseases. In this protocol, I describe a method for studying levels of RNA-induced PKR activation in vitro.