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Dissection microscope Dissecting stereomicroscope
{{'Company'|translate}}: ZEISS
{{'Catalog#'|translate}}: Stemi DV4
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Culture and Nucleofection of Postnatal Day 7 Cortical and Cerebellar Mouse Astroglial Cells
[Abstract]  Lineage reprogramming of astroglial cells isolated from different brain regions leads to the generation of different neuronal subtypes. This protocol describes the isolation and culture of neocortical and cerebellar astrocytes from postnatal mice. We also present a comprehensive description of the main steps towards successful gene delivery in these cells using nucleofection. Neocortex and cerebellum astrocyte cultures obtained with these methods are suitable for the study of molecular and cellular mechanisms involved in direct cell lineage reprogramming into induced neurons (iNs).

Using Silicon Polymer Impression Technique and Scanning Electron Microscopy to Measure Stomatal Aperture, Morphology, and Density
[Abstract]  The number of stomata on leaves can be affected by intrinsic development programming and various environmental factors, in addition the control of stomatal apertures is extremely important for the plant stress response. In response to elevated temperatures, transpiration occurs through the stomatal apertures, allowing the leaf to cool through water evaporation. As such, monitoring of stomata behavior to elevated temperatures remains as an important area of research. The protocol allows analysis of stomatal aperture, morphology, and density through a non-destructive imprint of Arabidopsis thaliana leaf surface. Stomatal counts were performed and observed under a scanning electron microscope.

An in vitro Model of Neuron-macrophage Interaction to Generate Macrophages with Neurite Outgrowth Properties
[Abstract]  Macrophages are known to play beneficial roles in axon regeneration after nerve injury. To develop an in vitro model in which injury signals can elicit pro-regenerative macrophage activation, we established co-cultures consisting of adult dorsal root ganglia sensory neurons and peritoneal macrophages and added cAMP analogue dibutyryl cAMP. The conditioned medium collected from the co-cultures exhibited robust neurite outgrowth activities. The neurite outgrowth activities were almost completely abrogated by addition of minocycline, a macrophage deactivator, indicating that factors responsible for neurite outgrowth are produced by activated macrophages.