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Site-specific DNA Mapping of Protein Binding Orientation Using Azidophenacyl Bromide (APB)
[Abstract]  The orientation of a DNA-binding protein bound on DNA is determinative in directing the assembly of other associated proteins in the complex for enzymatic action. As an example, in a replisome, the orientation of the DNA helicase at the replication fork directs the assembly of the other associated replisome proteins. We have recently determined the orientation of Saccharalobus solfataricus (Sso) Minichromosome maintenance (MCM) helicase at a DNA fork utilizing a site-specific DNA cleavage and mapping assay. Here, we describe a detailed protocol for site-specific DNA footprinting using 4-azidophenacyl bromide (APB). This method provides a straightforward, biochemical method to reveal the DNA binding orientation of SsoMCM helicase and can be applied to other DNA binding ...

Photoactivable Cholesterol as a Tool to Study Interaction of Influenza Virus Hemagglutinin with Cholesterol
[Abstract]  Non-covalent binding of cholesterol to the transmembrane region of proteins affect their functionalities, but methods to prove such an interaction are rare. We describe our protocol to label the hemagglutinin (HA) of Influenza virus with a cholesterol derivative in living cells or with immunoprecipitated protein. We synthesized a “clickable” photocholesterol compound, which closely mimics authentic cholesterol. It contains a reactive diazirine group that can be activated by UV-illumination to form a covalent bond with amino acids in its vicinity. Incorporation of photocholesterol into HA is then visualized by “clicking” it to a fluorophore, which can be detected in an SDS-gel by fluorescence scanning. This method provides a convenient and practical way to demonstrate cholesterol-binding ...

Protocol for Ribosome Profiling in Bacteria
[Abstract]  Ribosome profiling provides information on the position of ribosomes on mRNA on a genomic scale. Although this information is often used to detect changes in gene expression under different conditions, it also has great potential for yielding insight into the mechanism and regulation of protein synthesis itself. First developed in yeast, ribosome profiling involves the isolation and sequencing of ribosome-protected mRNA fragments generated by nuclease treatment. Since the application of ribosome profiling in bacteria has been problematic, we report here a systematically optimized protocol for E. coli that we have used with success for other bacteria as well. Cells are harvested by flash-freezing cultures directly in liquid nitrogen. After lysis, translation is arrested by high ...