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Sodium tetraborate decahydrate

十水合四硼酸钠

Company: Sigma-Aldrich
Catalog#: B9876
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Optogenetic Stimulation and Recording of Primary Cultured Neurons with Spatiotemporal Control
Author:
Date:
2017-06-20
[Abstract]  We studied a network of cortical neurons in culture and developed an innovative optical device to stimulate optogenetically a large neuronal population with both spatial and temporal precision. We first describe how to culture primary neurons expressing channelrhodopsin. We then detail the optogenetic setup based on the workings of a fast Digital Light Processing (DLP) projector. The setup is able to stimulate tens to hundreds neurons with independent trains of light pulses that evoked action potentials with high temporal resolution. During photostimulation, network activity was monitored using patch-clamp recordings of up to 4 neurons. The experiment is ideally suited to study recurrent network dynamics or biological processes such as plasticity or homeostasis in a network of neurons ... [摘要]  我们研究了文化中的皮层神经元网络,并开发了一种创新的光学装置,以空间和时间精确度激发大量神经元。 我们首先描述如何培养表达channelorhodopsin的原代神经元。 然后,我们将根据快速数字光处理(DLP)投影机的工作原理来详细说明光遗传设置。 该设置能够用独立的光脉冲训练数十到数百个神经元,以高时间分辨率诱发动作电位。 在光刺激期间,使用多达4个神经元的膜片钳记录监测网络活动。 该实验非常适合研究复杂的网络动力学或生物过程,如神经元网络中的可塑性或体内平衡,当子群体由其特征(相关性,速率和大小)进行精细控制的不同刺激激活时。
【背景】光致遗传学提供以毫秒精度控制神经元活动的平均值。然而,神经元通常通过同时激活整个群体的光的闪光或通过在整个视野上的时间调制强度的光同时激活(Boyden等人,2005)。然而,存在几种空间调节光并已被用于使谷氨酸不起作用的方法(Nawrot等人,2009)或激活表达神经元的通道视紫质(ChR2)(Guo等人,2009)(用于审查刺激神经元的可用方法具有空间和时间分辨率参见Anselmi等人,2015)。
为了获得刺激的空间控制,第一种可能性是使用激光并将其光束快速移动到不同位置。例如,通过用声光偏转器偏转激光束已经实现了在不同树枝状位置处的谷蛋白解冻(Shoham等人,2005)。只有我们在有限的区域内足够缓慢地调节光强度,这个策略才可能是可行的。或者,可以使用相位或强度的光调制器来实现光的空间图案。基于相位调制的全息技术允许以三维空间精度获得图像,但是可以以仅100Hz的速率显示图案(Papagiakoumou等人,2010)。如果二维图案是足够的,则可以通过将投影仪或阵列的LED放置在样品的共轭平面中来简单地获得强度调制(Farah等人,2007; ...

Fluoro-Jade B Staining for Neuronal Cell Death
Author:
Date:
2016-01-05
[Abstract]  Fluoro-Jade is a fluorescent derivative used for histological staining of degenerating neurons. This technique is simple and sensitive enough to label distal dendrites, axons, axon terminals as well as neuronal bodies. Fluoro-Jade has excitation and emission peak of 480 and 525 nanometer respectively. It can be visualized using a fluorescein/FITC filter. Some reports have demonstrated that Fluoro-Jade can also be useful to detect glial cell death (Anderson et al., 2013; Damjanac et al., 2007). [摘要]  Fluoro-Jade是用于退化神经元的组织学染色的荧光衍生物。 这种技术是简单和足够敏感到标记远端树突,轴突,轴突终端以及神经元体。 翡翠的激发和发射峰分别为480和525纳米。 它可以使用荧光素/FITC过滤器可视化。 一些报道已经证明氟 - 玉也可以用于检测胶质细胞死亡(Anderson等人,2013; Damjanac等人,2007)。

Neuron Culture from Mouse Superior Cervical Ganglion
Author:
Date:
2014-01-20
[Abstract]  The rodent superior cervical ganglion (SCG) is a useful and readily accessible source of neurons for studying the mechanisms of sympathetic nervous system (SNS) development and growth in vitro. The sympathetic nervous system (SNS) of early postnatal animals undergoes a great deal of remodeling and development; thus, neurons taken from mice at this age are primed to re-grow and establish synaptic connections after in situ removal. The stereotypic location and size of the SCG make it ideal for rapid isolation and dissociation. The protocol described here details the requirements for the dissection, culture and differentiation of SCG neurons. The protocol is suitable for culturing neurons from late embryonic gestation to approximately postnatal day 3. The culture technique ... [摘要]  啮齿动物上级子宫颈神经节(SCG)是一种有用且易于获取的神经元来源,用于研究交感神经系统(SNS)体外发育和生长的机制。 早期出生后动物的交感神经系统(SNS)经历了大量的重塑和发育; 因此,在这个年龄的小鼠中取出的神经元被引发再生长并在原位移除后建立突触连接。 SCG的刻板位置和尺寸使其成为快速隔离和解离的理想选择。 这里描述的方案详述了SCG神经元的解剖,培养和分化的要求。 该方案适用于从晚期胚胎妊娠至大约出生后第3天培养神经元。下面讨论的培养技术利用玻璃盖玻片进行固定细胞的显微镜检查。

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