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Magnesium chloride, MgCl2


Company: Sigma-Aldrich
Catalog#: M8266
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Quantification of Protein Kinase A (PKA) Activity by An in vitro Radioactive Assay Using the Mouse Sperm Derived Enzyme
[Abstract]  In order to acquire fertilizing potential, mammalian sperm must undergo a process known as capacitation, which relies on the early activation of Protein Kinase A (PKA). Frequently, PKA activity is assessed in whole-cell experiments by analyzing the phosphorylation status of its substrates in a western-blot. This technique faces two main disadvantages: it is not a direct measure of the kinase activity and it is a time-consuming approach. However, since PKA can be readily obtained from sperm extracts, in vitro assays such as the “radioactive assay” can be performed using the native enzyme. Unlike western-blot, the radioactive assay is a straightforward technique to evaluate PKA activity by quantification of incorporated 32P into a peptidic ... [摘要]  [Abstract]为了获得受精潜能,哺乳动物的精子必须经历一个被称为电容的过程,这个过程依赖于蛋白激酶A(PKA)的早期激活。通常,在全细胞实验中,通过分析其底物在western-blot中的磷酸化状态来评估PKA的活性。这种技术面临着两个主要的缺点:它不是对激酶活性的直接测量,而且是一种耗时的方法。然而,由于PKA可以很容易地从精子提取物中获得,体外检测如"放射性检测"可以使用原生酶进行。与western-blot不同的是,放射性测定法是一种直接的技术,通过将整合的32P定量到肽类底物中来评价PKA的活性。这种方法很容易允许分析PKA的不同激动剂或拮抗剂。由于小鼠精子是可溶性PKA的丰富来源,这种测定法可以进行简单的分馏,使PKA既可用于体外测试药物对PKA活性的影响,也可用于跟踪PKA活性在增容开始时的变化。

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Molecular Size Analysis of Recombinant Importin-histone Complexes Using Analytical Ultracentrifugation
[Abstract]  Histones constitute the protein components of nucleosomes. Despite their small sizes, histones do not diffuse through the nuclear pore complex. Instead, they are transported to the nucleus by importins, either alone or in complex with histone chaperones. Determining the molecular size of the importin-histone complexes is key to understanding the mechanism of histone transport and also the potential roles of importins as histone chaperones and in the assembly of nucleosomes. Here we report a simple and reproducible sedimentation-velocity based method to determine the molecular sizes of importin-histone complexes using analytical ultracentrifugation. The method does not use any reporter tags or interaction with column resin thereby analyzing the interactions of the native proteins. [摘要]  [摘要] 组蛋白构成核小体的蛋白质成分。尽管其尺寸很小,但组蛋白不会通过核孔复合物扩散。取而代之的是,它们单独或与组蛋白分子伴侣复合地被重要蛋白转运至细胞核。确定importin-histone复合物的分子大小是理解组蛋白转运机制的关键,也是importins作为组蛋白伴侣和在核小体组装中的潜在作用的关键。在这里,我们报告了一种简单且可重现的沉降速度为基础的方法,该方法使用分析超速离心法来确定importin-histone配合物的分子大小。该方法不使用任何报告子标签或与色谱柱树脂的相互作用,从而分析了天然蛋白质的相互作用。

[背景] 核小体是真核染色质的最基本的结构和功能单元。组蛋白H2A,H2B,H3和H 4是核小体的蛋白质成分。每个核包括147个碱基的DNA wrapp的对编绕Ñ H3-H4四聚体和H2A-H2B二聚体的两个拷贝(Luger的等人,1997年一)。像细胞中的其他蛋白质一样,组蛋白在细胞质中合成。然而,核小体组装在核中。尽管它们的小尺寸(单体是10-15 kDa)的,组蛋白不通过核孔复合物扩散,而是可以单独使用或在复合物与由组蛋白importins伴侣输送要么(约翰逊-SAL IBA 等人,2000 ; Baake 等等人,2001;Mosammaparast 等人,2001,2002a和2002b;Muhlhausser ...

Isolation of Chromatin-bound Proteins from Subcellular Fractions for Biochemical Analysis
[Abstract]  Shuttling of proteins between different cellular compartments controls their proteostasis and can contribute in some cases to regulate their activity. Biochemical analysis of chromatin-bound proteins, such as transcription factors, is often difficult because of their low yield and due to the interference from nucleic acids. This protocol describes a method to efficiently fractionate cells combined with a mechanical (i.e., sonication) or an enzymatic treatment (i.e., benzonase) that facilitates analysis of chromatin-bound protein extracts by Western blot analysis or by protein pull-down assays. This approach can be valuable to enrich a particular protein within a particular subcellular fraction either to study specific post-translational modification patterns or to ... [摘要]  在不同细胞区室之间穿梭蛋白质控制它们的蛋白质稳态,并且在某些情况下可以有助于调节它们的活性。 染色质结合蛋白(例如转录因子)的生化分析通常是困难的,因为它们的产率低并且由于核酸的干扰。 该协议描述了一种有效分离细胞的方法,结合机械(即,超声处理)或酶处理(即,benzonase),有助于分析染色质结合蛋白提取物 通过蛋白质印迹分析或蛋白质下拉分析。 该方法对于富集特定亚细胞级分内的特定蛋白质以研究特定的翻译后修饰模式或鉴定特定的蛋白质 - 蛋白质相互作用可能是有价值的。
【背景】许多染色质结合蛋白的活性和翻译后调节研究很少,因为在分离它们进行生化分析时存在技术困难。这甚至是转录因子的情况,例如基本的螺旋 - 环 - 螺旋(bHLH)转录因子,其通常在组织或细胞模型中具有稀缺的时间和空间表达模式(Dennis 等。,2018)。当生物材料的量成为研究分子途径的障碍时,协议细化有助于解除技术限制(Gillotin和Guillemot,2016)。在我们最近的研究中,我们努力了解神经元bHLH转录因子Ascl1的蛋白水解是如何在神经元分化的细胞模型中调节的(Gillotin et ...