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(+)-Sodium L-ascorbate

(+) - L-抗坏血酸钠

Company: Sigma-Aldrich
Catalog#: 11140
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Analytical Gel Filtration for Probing Heavy Metal Transfer between Proteins
Author:
Date:
2016-08-05
[Abstract]  Heavy metals can cause damage to biomolecules such as proteins and DNA in multiple ways. Cells therefore strive for keeping intracellular (heavy) metal ions bound to specific proteins that are capable of handling detoxification, export or integration as cofactors. Metal binding proteins usually provide specific coordination sites that bind certain ions with ultrahigh affinity, with the thermodynamic driving force being the stability of organometallic complexes. However, the metal binding properties of these proteins can be highly variable. Therefore the transfer of specific ions between separate proteins or even between distinct binding sites located on one and the same protein does not always follow affinity gradients, but depends on particular protein interactions that are difficult to ... [摘要]  重金属可以以多种方式对生物分子例如蛋白质和DNA造成损害。因此,细胞努力保持细胞内(重)金属离子结合到能够处理解毒,输出或整合作为辅因子的特定蛋白质。金属结合蛋白通常提供结合某些离子的特异性配位位点,具有超高的亲和力,热力学驱动力是有机金属配合物的稳定性。然而,这些蛋白质的金属结合性质可以是高度可变的。因此,在分开的蛋白质之间或甚至在位于同一蛋白质上的不同结合位点之间的特异性离子的转移不总是遵循亲和梯度,而是取决于难以预测的特定蛋白质相互作用。我们建立了一种适合探测两种蛋白质之间的金属转移的方法,只要这些蛋白质可以进行纯化和体外处理。它由金属负载,共孵育和金属交换蛋白的分离,随后确定结合金属含量。该方法通过我们探测膜 - 外在金属结合结构域MBD2和来自大肠杆菌的铜输出ATP酶的跨膜结构域的膜 - 外部金属结合结构域MBD2之间的铜(I)转移的实验数据来举例说明(Drees < em=""> 。,2015)。

Design of a Transcription-based Secretion Activity Reporter (TSAR) for the Type III Secretion Apparatus of Shigella flexneri and Uses Thereof
Author:
Date:
2014-10-20
[Abstract]  Many gram-negative bacterial pathogens, including Shigella flexneri, are able to translocate bacterial proteins, dubbed effectors, across the host cell plasma membrane into the host cell cytosol using a syringe-like structure, the type three secretion apparatus (T3SA). While some bacteria use their T3SA to modulate their phagosomal environment (Salmonella spp.), establish pedestal structure to form microcolonies on the plasma membrane (Enteropathogenic Escherichi coli) or lyse their entry vacuole (Shigella spp.), they all have in common a tightly regulated activity of their T3SA. However, the tracking of the activity of the T3SA in infected cells and tissue has been difficult to perform. Using the property of MxiE-dependent promoters that are ... [摘要]  包括灵芝氏菌在内的许多革兰氏阴性细菌病原体能够使用注射器样结构将类型三分泌物穿过宿主细胞质膜转运细菌蛋白质(配体效应子)到宿主细胞胞质溶胶中装置(T3SA)。虽然一些细菌使用它们的T3SA调节它们的吞噬体环境(沙门氏菌

spp 。),建立基质结构以在质膜上形成微集落(Enteropathogenic < em="">)或溶解它们的进入泡(志贺氏菌属。),它们都具有共同的严格调节的他们的T3SA的活性。然而,T3SA在感染的细胞和组织中的活性的跟踪一直难以进行。使用在T3SA是活性时上调的MxiE依赖性启动子的性质,我们最近设计了基于转录的分泌活性报道分子(TSAR),其允许以下的S的活性。使用快速成熟的GFP内在荧光,在组织培养细胞中实时地和体内实时分析灵敏度。在这里我们描述TSAR的设计及其应用于固定和活体样品的显微镜和流式细胞仪在结肠上皮细胞模型使用TC7组织培养细胞。

Gradient Flotation Centrifugation of Chloroplast Membranes
Author:
Date:
2014-09-05
[Abstract]  Plastoglobules are lipoprotein particles physically attached to thylakoids in chloroplasts (Kessler et al., 1999). They are mainly composed of polar lipid, neutral lipids, and proteins (Vidi et al., 2006). Here we used simple sucrose gradient flotation centrifugation method to purify the plastoglobules from total chloroplast membranes (Vidi et al., 2007, Shanmugabalaji et al., 2013). [摘要]  塑性球蛋白是物理附着于叶绿体中类囊体的脂蛋白颗粒(Kessler等人,1999)。 它们主要由极性脂质,中性脂质和蛋白质组成(Vidi等人,2006)。 在这里,我们使用简单的蔗糖梯度浮选离心法从总叶绿体膜中纯化质体球(Vidi等人,2007,Shanmugabalaji等人,2013)。

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