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Potassium chloride

氯化钾

Company: Sigma-Aldrich
Catalog#: P9541
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Purification of Soluble Recombinant Human Tau Protein from Bacteria Using Double-tag Affinity Purification
Author:
Date:
2018-10-05
[Abstract]  Dysfunction of the microtubule-associated protein Tau (encoded by the MAPT gene) has been implicated in more than twenty neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer’s. As such, the physiological and disease-relevant functions of Tau have garnered great interest in the research community. One barrier hampering investigations into the functions of Tau and the generation of pharmacological agents targeting Tau has been the difficulty of obtaining soluble Tau protein in purified form. Here, we describe a protocol that uses dual affinity tag purification to selectively purify soluble recombinant Tau protein from bacteria that is functionally active for downstream applications including immunization, microtubule binding assays, and protein-protein interaction studies. [摘要]  微管相关蛋白Tau(由 MAPT 基因编码)的功能障碍已经涉及20多种神经退行性疾病,包括阿尔茨海默病。 因此,Tau的生理和疾病相关功能引起了研究界的极大兴趣。 妨碍对Tau功能的研究和产生靶向Tau的药理学试剂的一个障碍是难以获得纯化形式的可溶性Tau蛋白。 在这里,我们描述了一种方案,该方案使用双亲和标签纯化从细菌中选择性纯化可溶性重组Tau蛋白,所述细菌对于下游应用具有功能活性,包括免疫,微管结合测定和蛋白质 - 蛋白质相互作用研究。
【背景】Tau传统上被定义为微管结合蛋白;然而,在人类疾病中,Tau可以与轴突微管分离并错误定位到其他神经元区室,包括体细胞,树突和突触,其中与非微管蛋白和结构的相互作用驱动神经元功能障碍(Iqbal et al。 ,2016; Wang和Mandelkow,2016; Zhou et al。,2017; McInnes et al。,2018)。尽管神经原纤维缠结形式的Tau聚集体通常存在于死后患病的脑组织中,但研究表明,可溶性Tau,而不是聚集的Tau,是神经元功能障碍的主要原因(Crimins et al。,2012 ; Polydoro et al。,2014; Koss et al。,2016)。因此,研究Tau在疾病中的可溶性功能,例如鉴定蛋白质 - ...

Identifying Protein Interactions with Histone Peptides Using Bio-layer Interferometry
Author:
Date:
2018-09-20
[Abstract]  Histone post-translational modifications (PTMs) regulate numerous cellular processes, including gene transcription, cell division, and DNA damage repair. Most histone PTMs affect the recruitment or exclusion of reader proteins from chromatin. Here, we present a protocol to measure affinity and interaction kinetics between histone peptides and the recombinant protein using Bio-layer interferometry. [摘要]  组蛋白翻译后修饰(PTM)调节许多细胞过程,包括基因转录,细胞分裂和DNA损伤修复。 大多数组蛋白PTM影响从染色质中募集或排除读取蛋白。 在这里,我们提出了一个协议,使用生物层干涉测量法测量组蛋白肽和重组蛋白之间的亲和力和相互作用动力学。

【背景】真核染色质结构大致分为常染色质和异染色质(Cheung和Lau,2005),异染色质结构根据组蛋白翻译后修饰(PTM)的组合进一步细分。这些PTM不仅改变染色质构象,还在基因表达和蛋白质募集中建立直接调节作用(Felsenfeld和Groudine,2003; Allshire和Madhani,2017)。组蛋白PTM的无数组合 - 包括乙酰化,磷酸化,甲基化,泛素化,生物素化,SUMO化和脯氨酸异构化,统称为“组蛋白标记” - 可以被发现,特别是在从核小体核心突出的非结构化N末端尾部( Guetg和Santoro,2012)。这些PTM通过不同“读者”或效应蛋白的活动调节许多细胞过程,包括基因转录,细胞分裂和DNA损伤修复(Suganuma和Workman,2011)(Musselman et al。, 2012)。因此,已经做出很大努力来识别读者的组蛋白修饰。

使用常规方法(例如,表面等离子体共振[SPR]和SPR成像[SPRi]生物传感器)研究读取蛋白与其靶蛋白PTM之间的相互作用通常需要大量底物或复杂的多步实验方法并且由于各种方法特定的限制而变得复杂。这些问题排除了量化相互作用强度的简便性和准确性(Phizicky和Fields,1995; ...

Protocol for the Isolation and Super-resolution dSTORM Imaging of RyR2 in Cardiac Myocytes
Author:
Date:
2018-08-05
[Abstract]  Since its inception, super-resolution microscopy has played an increasingly important role in the discovery and characterization of nanoscale biological structure. dSTORM, which is one of the most commonly applied methods, relies on stochastic photoswitching of fluorophores to recreate a super-resolution image. The cardiac field has particularly benefitted from the application of this technique, as it has enabled sub-diffraction-limit visualization of calcium release units (CRUs) and the fundamental structures that trigger contraction. Acquisition of such images requires careful, reproducible sample preparation, and consistent imaging conditions maintained for the duration of the experiment. Here we present standardized methods for the production of dSTORM images of the Ca2+ ... [摘要]  自成立以来,超分辨率显微镜在纳米级生物结构的发现和表征中发挥着越来越重要的作用。 dSTORM是最常用的方法之一,它依赖于荧光团的随机光切换来重建超分辨率图像。心脏场特别受益于该技术的应用,因为它已经实现了钙释放单元(CRU)的子衍射极限可视化和触发收缩的基本结构。获取这些图像需要仔细,可重复的样品制备,并且在实验期间保持一致的成像条件。在这里,我们提出了生产心肌细胞中Ca 2 + 释放通道Ryanodine Receptor type-2(RyR2)的dSTORM图像的标准化方法。所提出的方案特别关注涉及原发性心肌细胞分离,样品制备和成像的步骤,其中提供了针对实验溶液和显微镜设置的细节。本讨论之后是各种分析技术的概述,以识别集群和CRU中的RyR2组织

【背景】近年来,超分辨率显微镜的普及率迅速提高。已经描述了各种超分辨率技术,其使光学分辨率远低于光的衍射极限,在某些情况下接近可通过电子显微镜获得的光学分辨率。总之,这些技术的出现导致了纳米级生物结构,结构域和蛋白质相互作用的新研究的爆炸式增长。一种流行的超分辨率技术是直接随机光学显微镜(dSTORM),与标准共聚焦显微镜相比,它将相对简单的样品处理的优势与分辨率提高了约10倍(van de Linde ...

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