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Trichloroacetic acid

三氯乙酸

Company: Sigma-Aldrich
Catalog#: T6399
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Protease Activity Assay in Fly Intestines
Author:
Date:
2017-09-20
[Abstract]  The intestine is a central organ required for the digestion of food, the absorption of nutrients and for fighting against aggressors ingested along with the food. Impairment of gut physiology following mucosal damages impacts its digestive capacities that consequently will affect growth, wellbeing or even survival of the individual. Hence, the assessment of intestinal functions encompasses, among others, the monitoring of its integrity, its cellular renewing, its immune defenses, the production of enteroendocrine hormones and its digestive capacities. Here, we describe in detail how to assess the activity of the proteases secreted in the intestinal lumen of adult Drosophila melanogaster flies. This method can also be used for larval intestines. The present protocol is adapted and ... [摘要]  肠是消化食物所需的中枢器官,吸收营养物质,并与食物一起摄入的侵略者作斗争。 粘膜损伤后的肠道生理损伤影响其消化能力,从而影响个体的生长,健康甚至生存。 因此,肠功能的评估包括监测其完整性,细胞更新,免疫防御,肠内分泌激素的产生及其消化能力。 在这里,我们详细描述如何评估分泌在成年果蝇的肠腔中的蛋白酶的活性。 这种方法也可以用于幼虫肠。 本协议由“蛋白酶荧光检测试剂盒”(产品代码PF0100)中提出的Sigma-Aldrich公司的方案进行了改进和改进。
【背景】肠道受到诸如斋戒,禁食,化学物质,病原体,损伤等诸多压力的影响。肠道能够通过保持其体内平衡的生理平衡来克服这种压力。为了感知进入的压力并产生适应性的维持肠功能的答案,肠已经开发出强健和保守的机制,如局部先天免疫防御和组织再生(Royet和Charroux,2013; Bonfini等,2016)。然而,在某些情况下,肠道稳态的维持可能受到影响。例如,在老化期间,随着许多未成熟或分化不良的细胞的存在,组织稳态维持总体下降(Jasper,2015; ...

Fluorometric Estimation of Glutathione in Cultured Microglial Cell Lysate
Author:
Date:
2017-06-05
[Abstract]  Glutathione is one of the major antioxidant defense components present in cells. It is predominantly present as reduced glutathione (GSH) and converted into oxidized glutathione (GSSG) while reducing the free radicals like hydroxyl ions (OH-). For the measurement of GSH and GSSG, o-phthalaldehyde (OPT) has been used as a fluorescent reagent. O-phthalaldehyde has an ability to react specifically with GSH at pH 8 and GSSG at pH 12 respectively. N-ethylmaleimide (NEM) has been used to prevent auto-oxidation of GSH during measurement of GSSG in the present protocol. The original protocol by Hissin and Hilf was developed for glutathione estimation in Rat liver tissue. The present protocol has been standardized following Hissin and Hilf (1976) for the estimation of ... [摘要]  谷胱甘肽是细胞中存在的主要抗氧化防御成分之一。它主要作为还原型谷胱甘肽(GSH)存在并转化为氧化型谷胱甘肽(GSSG),同时还可以减少自由基,如羟基离子(OH)。对于GSH和GSSG的测定,邻苯二甲醛(OPT)已被用作荧光试剂。邻苯二甲醛具有与pH8的GSH和pH12的GSSG特异性反应的能力。已经使用N-甲基马来酰亚胺(NEM)来在本方案中测量GSSG期间防止GSH的自动氧化。 Hissin和Hilf的原始方案被开发用于大鼠肝组织中的谷胱甘肽估计。目前的方案已经在Hissin和Hilf(1976)之后被标准化,用于估计培养的小胶质细胞裂解物中的谷胱甘肽,但它也可以用于其它哺乳动物细胞裂解物。在我们的实验中,相同的方案已被用于估计小鼠神经母细胞瘤细胞N2a的全细胞裂解物中的谷胱甘肽。

背景 该方法于1976年由Hissin和Hilf在分析生物化学方面出版(Hissin和Hilf,1976)。然而,有可用于准确检测GSH的方法;由于GSH容易氧化转化为GSSG,所以大多数方法给出过高的GSSG。 ...

Isolation and Analysis of Proteoglycans and Glycosaminoglycans from Archaeological Bones and Teeth
Author:
Date:
2017-04-05
[Abstract]  We have developed methods for isolating proteoglycans and glycosaminoglycans from archaeological bones and teeth. These methods have been previously published (Coulson-Thomas et al., 2015) and are described here in more detail. In the case of glycosaminoglycans, the method was a previously described method (Nader et al., 1999) which we optimized for archeological samples. [摘要]  我们开发了从考古学骨骼和牙齿中分离蛋白聚糖和糖胺聚糖的方法。 以前已经公开了这些方法(Coulson-Thomas等人,2015),并且在这里更详细地描述。 在糖胺聚糖的情况下,该方法是先前描述的方法(Nader等人,1999),其针对考古样品进行了优化。
【背景】骨组织主要由矿物成分(羟基磷灰石)和由胶原,非胶原蛋白和蛋白聚糖(PG)组成的有机基质组成。 由于与羟基磷灰石紧密结合,细胞外基质蛋白和PG被保护免受死亡后温度和化学药剂的破坏作用。 然而,到目前为止,只有DNA和蛋白质已经从考古学骨骼中成功提取,因此我们开发了从考古学骨骼和牙齿中分离PG和糖胺聚糖(GAG)链的方法。 PGs和GAG在骨形态发生,体内平衡和退行性骨病中起主要作用,从考古骨骼分析这些分子将揭示有价值的古生物学信息。

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