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Ethanol 200 proof (EtOH)

乙醇200证明

Company: Decon Labs
Catalog#: 2716
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Nonenzymatic RNA-templated Synthesis of N3′→P5′ Phosphoramidate DNA
Author:
Date:
2020-09-05
[Abstract]  The RNA world hypothesis describes a scenario where early life forms relied on RNA to govern both inheritance and catalyze useful chemical reactions. Prior to the emergence of enzymes capable of replicating the RNA genome, a nonenzymatic replication process would have been necessary to initiate Darwinian Evolution. However, the one-pot nonenzymatic RNA chemical copying of templates with mixed-sequences is insufficient to generate strand products long enough to encode useful function. The use of alternate (RNA-like) genetic polymers may overcome hurdles associated with RNA copying, and further our understanding of nonenzymatic copying chemistry. This protocol describes the nonenzymatic copying of RNA templates into N3′→P5′ phosphoramidate DNA (3′-NP-DNA). We describe, in detail, the ... [摘要]  [摘要 ] RNA世界假说描述了一种场景,即早期生命形式依赖于RNA来控制遗传和催化有用的化学反应。在能够复制RNA基因组的酶出现之前,必须进行非酶复制过程以启动达尔文进化论。然而,具有混合序列的模板的一锅法非酶RNA化学复制不足以产生足够长的链产物以编码有用的功能。使用替代的(类似RNA的)遗传聚合物可以克服与RNA复制相关的障碍,并进一步我们对非酶复制化学的理解。该协议描述了将RNA模板非酶复制到N3'→P5' 氨基磷酸酯中的过程DNA(3'-NP-DNA)。我们详细描述了被2-氨基咪唑(3'-NH 2 -2AIpddN)活化的3'-氨基-2',3'-二脱氧核糖核苷酸单体的合成及其在模板指导的聚合反应中的用途。


[背景 ] 的Prim itive生命形式可能包括能够复制和功能的基因组中,一空间限定的隔室中包封的(绍斯塔克等人,2001;绍斯塔克,2012;布莱恩和Szostak,2014) 。在能够复制RNA基因组的酶出现之前,非酶复制过程可能是启动达尔文进化所必需的(Szostak,2012和2017)。由于RNA具有催化重要的化学反应(例如蛋白质合成)并在现代生物学环境中充当遗传信息载体的能力,因此它是原始遗传聚合物的逻辑候选物。

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Plant Assays for Quantifying Ralstonia solanacearum Virulence
Author:
Date:
2018-09-20
[Abstract]  Virulence assays are powerful tools to study microbial pathogenesis in vivo. Good assays track disease development and, coupled with targeted mutagenesis, can identify pathogen virulence factors. Disease development in plants is extremely sensitive to environmental factors such as temperature, atmospheric humidity, and soil water level, so it can be challenging to standardize conditions to achieve consistent results. Here, we present optimized and validated experimental conditions and analysis methods for nine assays that measure specific aspects of virulence in the phytopathogenic bacterium Ralstonia solanacearum, using tomato as the model host plant. [摘要]  毒力测定是研究体内微生物发病机制的有力工具。 良好的分析跟踪疾病发展,并结合定向诱变,可以识别病原体毒力因子。 植物的疾病发展对环境因素如温度,大气湿度和土壤水位极其敏感,因此标准化条件以获得一致的结果可能具有挑战性。 在这里,我们提出优化和验证的实验条件和分析方法的九个测定,测量植物病原细菌 Ralstonia solanacearum 的毒力的特定方面,使用番茄作为模型宿主植物。

【背景】 Ralstonia solanacearum 是一种土壤传播的细菌,在广泛的植物中引起细菌枯萎,并继续感染全球的新宿主(Hayward,1991; Elphinstone,2005; Wicker et al。 ,2007; Genin,2010; Weibel et al。,2016)。结果, R. solanacearum 是研究最深入的植物致病菌之一(Mansfield et al。,2012)。

R上。 solanacearum 可以长期存在于土壤或水库中(Alvarez et ...

Quantification of Hydrogen Sulfide and Cysteine Excreted by Bacterial Cells
Author:
Date:
2018-05-20
[Abstract]  Bacteria release cysteine to moderate the size of their intracellular pools. They can also evolve hydrogen sulfide, either through dissimilatory reduction of oxidized forms of sulfur or through the deliberate or inadvertent degradation of intracellular cysteine. These processes can have important consequences upon microbial communities, because excreted cysteine autoxidizes to generate hydrogen peroxide, and hydrogen sulfide is a potentially toxic species that can block aerobic respiration by inhibiting cytochrome oxidases. Lead acetate strips can be used to obtain semiquantitative data of sulfide evolution (Oguri et al., 2012). Here we describe methods that allow more-quantitative and discriminatory measures of cysteine and hydrogen sulfide release from bacterial cells. An ... [摘要]  细菌释放半胱氨酸以调节细胞内池的大小。它们也可以通过硫的氧化形式的异化还原或通过细胞内半胱氨酸的故意或无意降解来释放硫化氢。这些过程会对微生物群落产生重要影响,因为排泄的半胱氨酸会自动氧化生成过氧化氢,而硫化氢是一种潜在的毒性物种,可通过抑制细胞色素氧化酶来阻断有氧呼吸。醋酸铅条可用于获得硫化物演化的半定量数据(Oguri et al。,2012)。在这里,我们描述的方法,允许更多的定量和歧视措施半胱氨酸和硫化氢释放细菌细胞。提供了一个说明性实例,其中当暴露于外源性胱氨酸时,大肠杆菌迅速产生半胱氨酸和硫化物(Chonoles Imlay等人,2015; Korshunov等人, ,2016)。

【背景】微生物通过几种途径产生了减少的硫物质。硫酸盐还原菌利用还原过程作为能量生成的组成部分。其他细菌释放硫化物,作为硫物质(包括半胱氨酸)的蓄意或偶然降解的副产物。我们观察到半胱氨酸本身是在细胞内水平异常高时排泄的,这种情况可能通过不受控制的氨基酸输入或半胱氨酸合成失调发生。这些硫物质具有非同寻常的反应性,因为它们以高亲和力与金属结合,也是与分子氧发生化学反应的少数生物分子之一。结果是减少的硫化合物可以对细胞产生重要影响。因此,跟踪各种情况下含硫化合物的动态变化是非常重要的。

硫醇试剂 - 特别是5,5-二硫代双(2-硝基苯甲酸)(DTNB) ...

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