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D-(+)-Glucose

D-(+)-葡萄糖

Company: Sigma-Aldrich
Catalog#: G8270
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In vivo and in vitro 31P-NMR Study of the Phosphate Transport and Polyphosphate Metabolism in Hebeloma cylindrosporum in Response to Plant Roots Signals
Author:
Date:
2018-08-20
[Abstract]  We used in vivo and in vitro phosphorus-31 nuclear magnetic resonance (31P-NMR) spectroscopy to follow the change in transport, compartmentation and metabolism of phosphate in the ectomycorrhizal fungus Hebeloma cylindrosporum in response to root signals originating from host (Pinus pinaster) or non-host (Zea mays) plants. A device was developed for the in vivo studies allowing the circulation of a continuously oxygenated mineral solution in an NMR tube containing the mycelia. The in vitro studies were performed on fungal material after several consecutive treatment steps (freezing in liquid nitrogen; crushing with perchloric acid; elimination of perchloric acid; freeze-drying; dissolution in an appropriate liquid ... [摘要]  我们使用体内和体外磷-31核磁共振( 31 P-NMR)光谱来跟踪运输,分区和 外生菌根真菌 Hebeloma cylindrosporum 中的磷酸盐代谢响应来自宿主( Pinus pinaster )或非宿主( Zea mays )的根信号植物。 开发了一种用于体内研究的装置,其允许连续氧化的矿物质溶液在含有菌丝体的NMR管中循环。 在几个连续的处理步骤(在液氮中冷冻;用高氯酸压碎;消除高氯酸;冷冻干燥;在适当的液体培养基中溶解)后,对真菌材料进行体外研究。

【背景】 菌根真菌和植物之间的关联改善了宿主植物的P营养(Smith和Read,2008; Plassard和Dell,2010; Cairney,2011; Smith 等人,,2015)。这种积极效应主要归因于真菌菌丝对磷酸盐(Pi)的吸收,探测了在活跃吸收根周围的耗竭区以外的大量土壤(Smith和Read,2008; Cairney,2011; Smith et al。< em="">,2015)和真菌细胞分泌细胞外磷酸酶(Quiquampoix和Mousain,2005)。吸收的Pi部分地掺入磷酸化的代谢物,磷脂和核酸中,并且部分地浓缩成多磷酸盐(PolyP),其中它们构成液泡中的储存池(Ashford 等人,,1994)。该协议详述了一种装置,该装置允许通过 31 ...

Long-term in vitro Culture of Cryptosporidium parvum
Author:
Date:
2018-08-05
[Abstract]  Continuous in vitro growth of Cryptosporidium parvum has proved difficult and conventional in vitro culture techniques result in short-term (2-5 days) growth of the parasite resulting in thin-walled oocysts that fail to propagate using in vitro cultures, and do not produce an active infection using immunosuppressed or immunodeficient mouse models (Arrowood, 2002). Here we describe the use of hollow fiber bioreactors (HFB) that simulate in vivo conditions by providing oxygen and nutrients to host intestinal cells from the basal surface and permit the establishment of a low redox, high nutrient environment on the apical surface. When inoculated with 105 C. parvum (Iowa isolate) oocysts the bioreactor produced 108 ... [摘要]  Cryptosporidium parvum 的连续体外生长已证明是困难的,并且常规体外培养技术导致短期(2-5天)生长寄生虫导致薄壁卵囊不能使用体外培养物繁殖,并且不使用免疫抑制或免疫缺陷小鼠模型产生活跃感染(Arrowood,2002)。在这里,我们描述了中空纤维生物反应器(HFB)的使用,通过提供氧气和营养物质从基础表面宿主肠细胞模拟体内条件,并允许建立低氧化还原,高营养环境顶面。当接种10 5 C时。 parvum (爱荷华州分离物)卵囊生物反应器在14天后每ml产生10个 8 卵囊(20ml额外毛细血管体积),并保持2年以上。使用TCR-α免疫缺陷小鼠模型的体内感染性研究显示,在6,12和18个月时从生物反应器产生的卵囊与用于启动培养的亲本Iowa分离物无法区分。 HFB产生的卵囊具有与亲本爱荷华分离物类似的百分比分析。

【背景】 Cryptosporidium parvum 是人和其他哺乳动物肠道的细胞内专性寄生虫,导致急性腹泻。该疾病在免疫功能正常的个体中是自限性的,然而,在免疫功能低下的成人和幼儿中,该疾病可能危及生命(Kotloff,2017)。它是经济资源低的国家中三种被诊断出的儿童肠道疾病之一(Kotloff et al。,2013; Sow et ...

Determination of Storage (Starch/Glycogen) and Total Saccharides Content in Algae and Cyanobacteria by a Phenol-Sulfuric Acid Method
Author:
Date:
2018-08-05
[Abstract]  This is a protocol for quantitative determination of storage and total carbohydrates in algae and cyanobacteria. The protocol is simple, fast and sensitive and it requires only few standard chemicals. Great advantage of this protocol is that both storage and total saccharides can be determined in the cellular pellets that were already used for chlorophyll and carotenoids quantification. Since it is recommended to perform the pigments measurement in triplicates, each pigment analysis can generate samples for both total saccharide and glycogen/starch content quantification.

The protocol was applied for quantification of both storage and total carbohydrates in cyanobacteria Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803, Cyanothece sp. ATCC 51142 and Cyanobacterium sp. ...
[摘要]  这是用于定量测定藻类和蓝细菌中的储存和总碳水化合物的方案。该协议简单,快速,灵敏,只需要很少的标准化学品。该方案的最大优点是可以在已经用于叶绿素和类胡萝卜素定量的细胞沉淀中测定储存和总糖。由于建议一式三份进行颜料测量,因此每种颜料分析都可以生成总糖和糖原/淀粉含量定量的样品。

该方案用于量化蓝细菌 Synechocystis sp中的储存和总碳水化合物。 PCC 6803, Cyanothece sp。 ATCC 51142和 Cyanobacterium sp。 IPPAS B-1200。它还被用于估算 Galdieria (IPPAS P-500,IPPAS P-507,IPPAS P-508,IPPAS P-513), Cyanidium caldarium IPPAS中的储存多糖P-510,绿藻小球藻 sp。 IPPAS C-1和C-1210, Parachlorella kessleri IPPAS C-9, Nannochloris sp。 C-1509, Coelastrella sp。 IPPAS H-626, Haematococcus sp。 IPPAS H-629和H-239,以及 Eustigmatos sp。 IPPAS H-242和IPPAS C-70。

【背景】碳水化合物在藻类和蓝细菌的代谢中起着许多作用。正如Raven和Beardall(Raven和Beardall,2003)所总结的那样,碳水化合物代表碳还原/氧化途径(光合作用和光呼吸)中间体的主要汇集,它们提供生长所需的骨架(例如,for氨基酸或细胞壁生物合成),它们代表ATP和还原当量的来源(通过呼吸途径),它们作为相容的溶质,它们对维持细胞膨胀是必不可少的(通过确保细胞壁的刚性结构)并且它们可以清除自由基。储存多糖(其中藻类和蓝藻中的主要形式是淀粉和糖原)作为能量和碳源,缓冲碳水化合物生产和消费率之间的不成比例,并允许活跃的新陈代谢(例如,固氮)在黑暗时期。 ...

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