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Methanol

甲醇

Company: Sigma-Aldrich
Catalog#: 322415
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Isolation of Intact Vacuoles from Petunia Petals and Extraction of Sequestered Glycosylated Phenylpropanoid Compounds
Author:
Date:
2018-07-05
[Abstract]  Plant vacuoles are the largest compartment in plant cells, occupying more than 80% of the cell volume. A variety of proteins, sugars, pigments and other metabolites are stored in these organelles (Paris et al., 1996; Olbrich et al., 2007). Flowers produce a variety of specialized metabolites, some of which are unique to this organ, such as components of pollination syndromes, i.e., scent volatiles and flavonoids (Hoballah et al., 2007; Cna'ani et al., 2015). To study the compounds stored in floral vacuoles, this compartment must be separated from the rest of the cell. To enable isolation of vacuoles, protoplasts were first generated by incubating pierced corollas with cellulase and macrozyme enzymes. After filtering and several centrifugation ... [摘要]  植物液泡是植物细胞中最大的隔室,占细胞体积的80%以上。各种蛋白质,糖,色素和其他代谢物存储在这些细胞器中(Paris et al。,1996; Olbrich et al。,2007)。花产生多种特殊代谢物,其中一些是该器官特有的,如授粉综合征的成分, ie ,气味挥发物和黄酮类化合物(Hoballah et al。, 2007; Cna'ani et al。,2015)。为了研究存储在花液泡中的化合物,必须将该隔室与细胞的其余部分分开。为了能够分离液泡,首先通过将刺穿的花冠与纤维素酶和macrozyme酶一起孵育来产生原生质体。在过滤和几个离心步骤后,通过显微镜观察显示原生质体与碎片和受损/破裂的原生质体分离。裂解浓缩的原生质体,并通过Ficoll梯度离心提取液泡。 Vacuoles用于隔离代谢物的定量GC-MS分析。这种方法使我们能够将空泡识别为糖基化挥发性苯丙酸类的亚细胞聚集位点,并假设共轭气味化合物在通向顶空的途径中被隔离(Cna'ani et al。,2017) 。

【背景】植物空泡占植物细胞中细胞体积的80%。这些细胞器对植物生长和发育至关重要,在整个植物的生命中具有不同的功能。 ...

Preparation of Cerebellum Granule Neurons from Mouse or Rat Pups and Evaluation of Clostridial Neurotoxin Activity and Their Inhibitors by Western Blot and Immunohistochemistry
Author:
Date:
2018-07-05
[Abstract]  Cerebellar Granule Neurons (CGN) from post-natal rodents have been widely used as a model to study neuronal development, physiology and pathology. CGN cultured in vitro maintain the same features displayed in vivo by mature cerebellar granule cells, including the development of a dense neuritic network, neuronal activity, neurotransmitter release and the expression of neuronal protein markers. Moreover, CGN represent a convenient model for the study of Clostridial Neurotoxins (CNT), most notably known as Tetanus and Botulinum neurotoxins, as they abundantly express both CNT receptors and intraneuronal substrates, i.e., Soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor activating protein receptors (SNARE proteins). Here, we describe a protocol for obtaining a highly pure ... [摘要]  来自产后啮齿动物的小脑颗粒神经元(CGN)已被广泛用作研究神经元发育,生理学和病理学的模型。 CGN体外培养维持成熟小脑颗粒细胞在体内显示的相同特征,包括发育致密的神经炎网络,神经元活动,神经递质释放和神经元的表达 蛋白质标记。 此外,CGN代表了梭菌神经毒素(CNT)研究的便利模型,最着名的是破伤风和肉毒杆菌神经毒素,因为它们大量表达CNT受体和神经元内基质, ie ,可溶性N-乙基马来酰亚胺 - 敏感因子激活蛋白受体(SNARE蛋白)。 在这里,我们描述了从出生后大鼠/小鼠获得高纯度CGN培养物的方案和用CNT中毒的简便方法。 我们还说明了评估CNT活性及其抑制的方便方法。

【背景】梭菌神经毒素(CNT)的大家族由破伤风神经毒素(TeNT)和肉毒杆菌神经毒素(BoNT)的多种变体形成,它们分别是破伤风和肉毒中毒的神经麻痹毒素(Schiavo et al。,2000; Johnson和Montecucco,2008; Rossetto et al。,2014)。 TeNT,七种BoNT血清型(BoNT / A至/ G)及其许多亚型是金属蛋白酶,通过切割SNARE蛋白(可溶性N-乙基马来酰亚胺敏感因子激活蛋白受体),三种必需蛋白质来阻断神经递质的释放而引起神经麻痹。控制突触小泡与突触前质膜的融合(Rossetto et al。,2014; ...

Adhesion of Enteroaggregative E. coli Strains to HEK293 Cells
Author:
Date:
2018-04-20
[Abstract]  Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (EAEC) is a recognized cause of acute diarrhea among both children and adults worldwide. EAEC strains are characterized by the presence of aggregative adherence fimbriae (AAF), which play a key role in pathogenesis by mediating attachment to the intestinal mucosa and by triggering host inflammatory responses. The aggregative adherence fimbria II (AAF/II) is the most important adherence factor of EAEC prototype strain 042 (EAEC042) to intestinal cells. Multiple receptors for AAF/II on epithelial cells have been identified including the transmembrane signaling mucin Muc1. This protocol describes a method to measure adherence of EAEC strains to HEK293 cells expressing the Muc1 glycoprotein. [摘要]  肠道集聚性大肠杆菌(EAEC)是全球儿童和成人急性腹泻的公认原因。 EAEC菌株的特征在于存在聚集粘附菌毛(AAF),其通过介导与肠粘膜的附着和通过引发宿主炎症反应而在发病机制中起关键作用。 聚合粘附菌毛II(AAF / II)是EAEC原型菌株042(EAEC042)对肠细胞最重要的粘附因子。 已经鉴定了上皮细胞上AAF / II的多种受体,包括跨膜信号传导粘蛋白Muc1。 该协议描述了测量EAEC菌株对表达Muc1糖蛋白的HEK293细胞的依从性的方法。

【背景】EAEC是世界范围内地方性和流行性腹泻病的重要原因。尽管发展中国家儿童腹泻最常见,但EAEC还与免疫受损成人腹泻,旅行者和工业化国家的食源性疾病有关,例如由志贺毒素(Stx)2a型产生的大致致命爆发2011年在北欧的血清型O104:H4的EAEC菌株(Harrington等人,2006; Rasko等人,2011)。 EAEC发病机制由生物体粘附肠细胞,产生肠毒素和细胞毒素并最终诱导炎症的能力决定(Harrington等,2006)。 EAEC对肠细胞的依从性由AAF菌毛粘附素介导(Czeczulin等人,1997)。迄今为止,已经描述了至少5种AAF菌毛的变体,全部编码在范围为55至65MDa的毒力质粒中(Jonsson等人,2015)。 ...

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